Thursday, May 29, 2014
Wednesday, May 28, 2014
Recibido de Uruguay y reproducido por el interés que puede suponer a nuestros empresarios: Ley de la Marihuana y efectos laborales
|27/05/2014||EL PAIS||INFORME NACIONAL||5||Empresas recurren decreto que prohíbe sanciones por marihuana. Recurso lo presentan 20 firmas de rubros diferentes ante Presidencia|
|27/05/2014||SUBRAYADO PORTAL (CANAL 10)||POLITICA||1||Transportistas y supermercadistas impugnan Ley de Marihuana|
Empresas recurren decreto que prohíbe sanciones por marihuana. Recurso lo presentan 20 firmas de rubros diferentes ante Presidencia
El reglamento de la ley de marihuana habilita "controles no invasivos" a los trabajadores. Foto: AFP.
Unas 20 empresas de diversas ramas de actividad presentarán un recurso contra la disposición del decreto reglamentario de la ley de marihuana que prohíbe sancionar a los empleados que concurran a trabajar bajo los efectos del cannabis.
El decreto 120/2014 (que se publicó en el Diario Oficial el 19 de mayo) reglamentó la ley aprobada en diciembre de 2013 que reguló la producción, distribución y venta de la marihuana destinada al consumo recreativo.
El artículo 42 del decreto regula el consumo de marihuana en el ámbito laboral, y prevé la realización de "controles aleatorios no invasivos" a los trabajadores, a quienes prohíbe "fumar, mantener encendidos, consumir o ingerir productos de cannabis o a base de cannabis durante la jornada de trabajo, sea en los lugares de trabajo o en ocasión del trabajo".
El decreto reglamentario habilita al empleador a "suspender" al trabajador al que se le detecte la existencia de THC (principal componente psicoactivo del cannabis) y le da la potestad de ordenarle que se retire del ámbito laboral.
El inciso 8° del artículo 42 del decreto establece que una comisión bipartita de seguridad laboral deberá definir en ese caso si hay mérito para derivar al trabajador a algún tipo de tratamiento para su adicción, pero aclara que ello "sin que proceda la aplicación de sanciones disciplinarias si el trabajador no hubiere incurrido en la comisión de alguna otra falta concreta sancionable derivada de las obligaciones que emergen del contrato de trabajo, motivada o no por el consumo problemático de cannabis".
Justamente, la imposibilidad de sancionar a los empleados por asistir a trabajar bajo los efectos de la marihuana o fumar cannabis durante la jornada laboral, es el eje del recurso administrativo que unas 20 empresas presentarán mañana miércoles contra el decreto reglamentario ante la Presidencia de la República.
Las empresas alegan que la norma "lesiona su interés directo, personal y legítimo, al eliminar la facultad de la parte empleadora de poder sancionar a aquel trabajador o trabajadores que durante la jornada se encuentren bajos los efectos del cannabis", argumenta el escrito que redactaron los abogados Diego Durand, Pablo García, Martín Carrasco y Nicolás Barquet, que asesoran a unas 20 empresas, entre las que se encuentran varias firmas de transporte de carga, un supermercado y una pinturería.
A criterio de las empresas impugnantes, el inciso 8° del artículo 42 del decreto reglamentario de la ley de marihuana es "ilegítimo" en virtud de "no ajustarse al derecho objetivo y al haber sido dictado con un fin distinto al debido; en la misma línea, invade la relación contractual laboral entre particulares, afectando el poder de dirección de la parte empleadora y poniendo en riesgo la vida e integridad física de los restantes trabajadores".
Durand dijo ayer a El País que espera que "con buen criterio" el Poder Ejecutivo revoque el decreto reglamentario. Luego de que se presente el recurso administrativo, la Presidencia de la República dispondrá de 150 días para pronunciarse. Si no lo hace o mantiene la vigencia de la disposición, las empresas reclamantes podrán pedir la nulidad del decreto ante el Tribunal de lo Contencioso Administrativo, indicó el abogado.
Según Durand, es correcto que el decreto reglamentario de la ley de marihuana regule aspectos vinculados a la salud, pero "no puede regular la potestad sancionatoria que tiene un patrón de dirigir el normal desarrollo del trabajo en su empresa".
"Se puede sancionar a un empleado alcoholizado o que haya realizado algo incorrecto, pero no a quien vaya a trabajar habiendo consumido marihuana", agregó el abogado.
Para Durand es "totalmente ilógico" que el decreto reglamentario de la ley de marihuana prohíba sanciones a los empleados que trabajen bajo los efectos del cannabis, cuando al mismo tiempo la reciente ley de responsabilidad penal del empleador prevé sanciones a los empresarios por fallas en la seguridad laboral.
"Un trabajador que haya fumado marihuana puede causar una distorsión por imprudencia o negligencia por estar bajo los efectos del cannabis y también puede poner en riesgo al propio empleador. Y por ese motivo es totalmente ilógico que el dueño de la empresa no pueda sancionar a esa persona", sostuvo el abogado.
El plazo para recurrir ante la Presidencia de la República el decreto reglamentario de la ley de marihuana vence el jueves 29, al cumplirse los diez días hábiles que marca la ley para estos casos. El decreto se publicó en el Diario Oficial el lunes 19.
Así, por ejemplo, el asesor jurídico de la Cámara de Comercio, Juan Mailhos, señaló que esa gremial resolverá en las próximas horas si recurre o no el decreto.
"Existe una gran contradicción porque el reciente decreto sobre seguridad en la construcción permite sanciones para el consumo de drogas pero eso no pasa para las demás ramas de actividad", indicó Mailhos ayer a El País desde Ginebra, Suiza, donde participa de una reunión de la Organización Internacional del Trabajo (OIT).
Por su parte, el presidente de la Comisión de Relaciones Socio-Laborales de la Cámara de Industrias, Andrés Fostik, dijo que la gremial todavía no definió la presentación de un recurso contra el decreto reglamentario de la ley de marihuana. Consultado ayer por El País, Fostik, quien también está participando del evento de la OIT, no descartó la opción de "iniciar alguna gestión" ante ese organismo a raíz de este tema.
Transportistas y supermercadistas impugnan Ley de Marihuana
Controles aleatorios dejará a las empresas sin posibilidad de sancionar a fumadores. Ley no permite fumar en horario laboral pero se podrá trabajar bajo efecto de cannabi
Un conjunto de empresas presentaron un recurso contra un artículo de la llamada Ley de Marihuana que prohíbe sancionar a aquellos trabajadores que estén bajo los efectos de la droga en horario laboral.
En su mayoría las impugnantes son empresas de transporte y supermercadistas. También están detrás del planteo la Cámara de Industrias y la Cámara de Comercio y Servicios.
El artículo 42 del decreto reglamentario sólo prevé "controles aleatorios no invasivos", aunque se prohíbe fumar marihuana en horario de trabajo.
El escrito fue presentado por los abogados Diego Durand, Pablo García, Martín Carrasco y Nicolás Barquet, informa El País.
El argumento es que se puede sancionar a un empleado alcoholizado o que haya realizado algo incorrecto pero no a quien vaya a trabajar después de haber fumado marihuana..
La ley que regulará el cultivo, consumo y distribución de marihuana en Uruguay defenderá a las personas de eventuales sanciones que puedan sufrir a causa de fumar.
Pero la reglamentación deberá tener en cuenta excepciones. La pregunta que muchos ciudadanos es que pasará si un chofer de ómnibus, por ejemplo, tiene un accidente bajo los efectos de la droga.
El Ministerio de Trabajo anunció que se incluirían cláusulas para atender estas excepciones.
Posted by CAMACOL at 6:37 AM
Tuesday, May 27, 2014
Thursday, May 22, 2014
Wednesday, May 21, 2014
Information and Analysis from the Institute for Cuban and Cuban-American Studies
University of Miami
Perils of Investing in Cuba
The Economist, a respected magazine, portrays Cuba’s new Foreign Investment Law as an “economic liberalization,” adding the subjective judgment that the regime is becoming “less communist.” (1) The Economist is calling on foreign companies to trust the Cuban leadership and invest in Castro’s impoverished island. Yet these opinions do not fit the facts or the policies of the Castro government. First and foremost, the Cuban Constitution is the active and prevailing law of the island. It frames and controls the Cuban legal system.
1. Cuba’s Constitution: An Investor’s Nightmare?
Written in 1976, and extensively revised in 1992 and later in 2002, the Constitution clearly defines the power vested in the Communist Party. Article 5 states that “the Communist Party is the superior leading force of the State.” Article 3 of the Constitution adds that the socialist system “shall be irrevocable and Cuba will never return to capitalism.”
As a communist regime, the national economy is centralized, planned and run by the State (Article 9). It is also based on a socialist ownership of the means of production (Article 14). These laws are specific and a prevalent part of Cuba’s legal system. They have not been set aside by the new Foreign Investment Law.
The communist constitution does not allow room for doubts on the issue of property ownership rights. On the contrary, it is clear, direct and precise. It states that “sugar mills, factories and all enterprises, banks and installations that have been nationalized and expropriated from imperialists, large estate owners and the bourgeoisie” (Article 15) are the property of the state.
The State controlled legal system in Cuba fails to protect foreign investors. Judges and lawyers are not independent and follow party and military orders. A recent example is the arrest 3 years ago of Cy Tokmakjian, a Canadian investor that has been languishing in jail without trial. On April 30, 2014, Peter Kent, Chairman of the Canadian House of Commons Defense Committee, complained publicly about the arrest of Mr. Tokmakjian and criticized Cuba for not protecting foreign investors. (2)
The Economist praise of Cuba’s new Foreign Investment law is an absurd misinterpretation of the island’s prevailing legal system. Factually, General Raul Castro’s military oligarchy is no “more liberal” or “less communist.” The Economist’s baseless praise is without merit.
The issue is that General Raul Castro is opening for business but in his own communist terms. The second problem for potential investors is that Cuba’s physical infrastructure is moving rapidly from acute decay to fatal collapse.
2. Deteriorated Roads, Bridges and Railroads
The island’s roads and bridges are unsafe and in need of urgent repair and the state lacks the needed funds to make the repairs. The fatigue, cracking and exacerbated deterioration of the bridges and roads are caused by low quality materials combined with inconsistent repair practices. As noted by a relevant study, “the lack of investment and maintenance are reflected in the deteriorated condition of the transportation system.” (3) In addition, hundreds of bridges throughout Cuba are in need of rehabilitation. (4)
In the global market, trucking is a vital commercial component and the decay of the national highway system presents a major obstacle for the safe and timely transportation of commercial cargo.
Cuba’s railroad system suffers from multiple infrastructure problems including rotten cross beams, rusted rails and loose tie plates. The dilapidated conditions of the railroad grid demand that in some areas the trains go at a maximum of 20 km an hour to avoid accidents. (5) Railroad bridges are also in precarious conditions with sinking foundations that disrupt the angles on the tracks. (6) Railroads are excellent forms of moving bulk commodities in cargo such as sugar and minerals. The task of repairing the infrastructure is beyond Cuba’s financial capacity. The acute deterioration of the transportation system is among the perils of investing in Castro’s Cuba.
3. Inadequate Ports With Mariel as the Exception
With the exception of the mega transshipment Port of Mariel, with a draft up to 49 feet and a capacity to store over 3 million containers, Cuba’s principal ports (Havana, Matanzas, Santiago de Cuba and Cienfuegos) are unable to accommodate large, modern vessels.
Experts have pointed out that in Cuba’s ports “all basic infrastructures, including connectivity to ground transportation networks, energy, telecommunication and water have suffered. All such systems are antiquated, unreliable and incapable of supporting the demands associated with a consumer-oriented economy.” (7)
The U.S. Trade Commission stated that the ports’ poor maintenance has created a situation where loading and unloading cargo can be a hazard. Furthermore, there is limited availability of cold storage, a crucial infrastructure component necessary for perishable food products. In addition, the availability of equipment and trucks used for moving loads on to and off the ports is inadequate and they lack spare parts needed for repair and maintenance.
The modern Port of Mariel, just 45 km West of Havana, is designed to serve super-container ships. However, the future possibility of serving as a container transshipment facility for a U.S. (post-embargo) commerce has major competition from high-tech Port of Miami, the closest American port to the new Panama Canal expansion. The Port of Miami enlargement has a dredge of up to 50 feet in depth and is capable of berthing even the largest container vessels in the world, including the future Maersk Triple E Class, which will have a draught of 47 feet and will be nearly 200 feet wide.
The mega Port of Miami has completed an under the bay tunnel for trucks to bypass Downtown Miami, doubling the port’s traffic capacity. So, why would the Pacific exporters choose the Port of Mariel if they could bring their cargoes directly into the U.S. via the excellent highway infrastructure of the Port of Miami? This fact should be a major concern for the Port of Mariel investors.
4. Unreliable Energy
Cuba has an aging and expensive centralized electrical power network that reaches 95% of the island’s population. Fossil fuels generate 85% of the energy. (8) There are seven major power plans that use inefficient equipment from former Soviet Union and Eastern communist countries, as well as old American equipment. All plants are operating below their estimated capacity level.
Cuba’s oil consumption is over 170,000 bbl/d, while domestic production is about 55,000 bbl/d. (9) Therefore; Cuba has to import 2/3 of its fuel needs. Over 100,000 bbl/d are imported from Venezuela. (10) Thus the financial stability of Cuba depends almost entirely on the largesse of Nicolas Maduro’s regime in Caracas. If support from Venezuela is reduced or ended, Cuba’s energy sector will have to find, urgently, another country willing and capable of providing this extreme and generous subsidy. A serious concern for any future investor interested in General Raul Castro’s business consortium.
5. Outdated Water and Sewer System
In Cuba, the water supply and sewer infrastructure is at a breaking point and close to catastrophic failure. Throughout the island, the water and sewer infrastructure is failing due to the deterioration of the pipelines, inefficient maintenance practices, antiquated equipment and substandard plumbing materials.
According to a 2013 report published in Granma, the Cuban government’s official newspaper, 58% of potable water is lost through leakage. (11)
Havana’s sewer system, which was built almost one hundred years ago, has been due for major repairs for almost five decades and it serves over two million citizens- well beyond its original design capacity of 400,000. The wastewater infrastructure is a serious concern. Fifty nine percent of the 2,160 contaminants recognized by UNEP are released into Cuba’s environment without any treatment. (12)
For over 54 years, the wastewater process has been substandard as a result of decades of neglected infrastructure and pollution control. This has taken a severe toll on the land which is now recognized as one of the most polluted in the world. (13) The growing deficiencies of clean water supply and wastewater contaminants are a major problem for corporations committed to clean environments.
6. Decaying Health
Although Cuba has an international reputation is having an excellent medical system, the hospitals and health infrastructure servicing the Cuban population have severely decayed since the collapse of the Soviet Union (1990). The majority of the inefficiencies are due to the high costs associated with the acquisition and maintenance of health equipment and the sector being ineffectively centralized and controlled by the government that operates the national health system. There are no private hospitals or clinics.
An ABC-TV 20/20 report on Cuba’s healthcare highlighted the dilapidated conditions of some hospitals that are accessible to everyday Cubans by pointing to the bleak conditions of hospitals rooms and the filthy environment of the medical facilities. (14)
A prominent economist had pointed out to this critical issue: “the 1990’s crisis (the collapse of the Soviet Union) almost totally halted imports of medical supplies, medicine and chemical inputs previously supplied by the socialist camp.” (15)
In 2012, it was stated by experts in the medical field that health facilities on the island tend to lack adequate equipment, medicine, syringes, potable water, bed sheets, disinfecting chemicals, faucets and even toilets in patient rooms. (16)
A three part series published by Canada’s National Post pointed out that common pharmaceutical items such as aspirins, antibiotics and rubbing alcohol are almost non-existent. The black market offers the best chances to obtain these items. (17)
A foreign journalist with several years reporting from Cuba wrote in June 2012 that he witnessed “many hospitals where there was no running water, the toilets did not flush and the risks of infection- by the hospital own admission- was extremely high.” (18)
Potential investors must be aware that Cuba’s healthcare provision has severely decayed. The country lacks funds to expand and upgrade equipment, which generally needs to be imported. The labor force may therefore have limited access to quality medical treatments- a sensible welfare issue.
7. Food and Agricultural Sector Failures
Since the establishment of the food rationing system in 1962, the issue of undernourishment or chronic food insecurity has been ever present in the daily life of Cubans. A 2001 study on food availability indicated that despite its fertile soils and favorable climate conditions, “Cuba could not achieve the country’s self-sufficiency in food.” (19) There are numerous natural and ideological reasons for this failure that have resulted in Cuba importing close to 80 percent of the food consumed by its 11 million inhabitants at a cost of over US$ 1.5 billion per year. (20) The imports primarily represent purchases of soybeans, corn, wheat, rice, beans, eggs, and poultry meat. (21)
Presently, it is estimated that over one third of Cuba’s arable land is uncultivated. (22) One of the main problems is the rapid proliferation of marabú- a spiny bush. This plant has proven to survive many efforts to remove it from the arable land. (23) There are provinces with high levels of marabú infestation.
The major causes of the agricultural failure are the scarce supply of fertilizers and modern farming equipment, poor transportation and irrigation infrastructure, inefficient management practices, theft, and bureaucratic corruption. Mistrust in the government’s commitment to reform is widespread and agricultural production is in a critical stage of stagnation. The food production failure is a disturbing social issue for foreign investors.
8. Outdated Internet Communication and Information System: An Unfriendly Business Environment
The global economy relies on modern internet communication technology for secure, reliable, swift and precise commercial, industrial and professional activities. This is a crucial factor for the successful fulfilment of trade exchange and distribution of goods. In Cuba, the high tech infrastructure is at a minimum level of performance while the communication system relies on antiquated equipment. Censorship is also among the most severe in the world. (24)
Although some efforts at modernization are being implemented, the State lacks the financial resources. Additionally, the Cuban government fears the powerful impact of new communication technologies on the people’s ability to share news and develop social networks among themselves.
Cuba has one of the lowest rates of population with internet access among all countries; with less than 3 percent of Cubans having access to internet. (25) The State also controls the flow of high tech internet equipment and information that reaches the island.
Due to the outdated and restricted communication infrastructure, Cuba’s information technology (IT) sector has not developed to modern standards. Unlike in free market economies, IT experts on the island do not focus on the integration and strengthening of systems that facilitate transactions. Instead, they emphasize technologies that simplify the government’s supervision of activities. An unfriendly business environment hindering a swift and successful participation in the global economy.
9. Violation of Workers’ Rights and Foreign Investors’ Complicity
General Raul Castro’s regime systematically violates the rights of workers to bargain for wages and labor conditions with the complicity of foreign entities engaged in joint ventures with the Cuban government. Article 33.3 of the Foreign Investment Law clearly states that Cuban workers “shall be hired through a contract between the company and an employing entity” controlled by the State.
Article 33.4 states that payment to Cuban workers “shall be made in national currency which must be obtained beforehand from convertible foreign currency” by the Cuban entity.
With the exchange rate of about 25 pesos (CUP) per dollar, (26) the foreign investor entity pays a fixed salary to the state employment agency in convertible pesos, or CUC (1 CUC= $1). The employment agency then pays the Cuban worker in Cuban pesos, CUP. Thus Cuban workers receive 1/25 less per peso after the currency is exchanged for CUP. The Cuban government keeps close to 80% of what the foreign entity pays.
This is an ethical travesty in which the workers’ real monthly wage is around 10% of the payment for its labor. A shameful business practice condemned by labor organizations worldwide.
A foreign investor in Cuba should carefully consider the unethical, unfair and abuse labor practice of workers’ exploitation when considering a joint venture with Cuba’s military oligarchy.
10. The High Risks of Venezuela’s Financial Collapse
According to Moody’s report of April 2014, Venezuela’s economy is in a downgrade, negative outlook rating and Cuba faces the risk that Venezuela will be forced to reduce or eliminate its huge financial support of over $6 billion yearly. (27) General Raul Castro’s regime is among the most vulnerable recipients of Venezuelan oil subsidies. Every day, Cuba receives over 100,000 barrels of oil from Venezuela in exchange for medical services.
Moody explains that when it downgraded Venezuela, last December, to a negative outlook rating, the key drivers were unsustainable macroeconomic imbalances, and a materially high risk of economic and financial collapse. (28) For Cuba’s subsistence economy, this is a catastrophic possibility. This high risk scenario must weigh heavily in the exposure to harm analysis of potential investors in Cuba. Definitely not an attractive option.
11. Widespread Corruption
In the 2012 corruption report by Transparency International, Cuba (tied with Namibia) was below most countries in the Caribbean and Central America. It defined corruption as “the abuse of central power for personal gain.” (29) Corruption can take many forms, from minor use of influence to high ranking government officials, institutionalized bribery and extortion. Widespread corruption is recognized as a major obstacle for a nation’s sustainable economic development.
State controlled Cuban newspaper Juventud Rebelde reported that over half of workers in retail enterprises routinely steal from cash registers. The paper stated that some state owned services are being used for personal profit. The report also added that many of the principal state enterprises are dysfunctional, unable to supply essential products and maintenance material to their retail outlets. The reason is theft. (30)
On May 2013, the Cuban Minister of Foreign Commerce and Investment reported on “the irregularities detected in the functioning of businesses with foreign capital.” The Minister of the Economy also stated that “corruption and theft are rampant in the fuel sector.” (31)
Stealing from government owned enterprises and their foreign investor partners is an acceptable way of life in the impoverished island in which the military oligarchy controls over 75% of the economy.
In the book, “Corruption in Cuba,” two prominent scholars argue that the Cuban privileged leadership has contributed to institutionalized corruption with rampant practice of nepotism, cronyism, bribery, control of production materials, pricing and lack of accountability. According to the study, few citizens hesitate to steal from government and enterprises. (32)
Today, large corporations are focused on anti-corruption mechanisms to protect their international reputation and the best interest of their stakeholders. Doing business in a corrupted business environment is also very costly, estimated to add 10% or more to the cost of operations.
Investors are discouraged by corruption since it increases the financial burden on the business. Unlike taxes, that are known and predictable and can be built into the expected cost, bribes, theft and extortions are difficult to control and unpredictable in magnitude and will negatively impact cost control, reduce profits, undermine investor confidence and unleash a commercial climate of fear and uncertainty in a country in which the revolutionary leadership control the judicial system.
Corporations doing business in Cuba are required to cooperate with State Security. This includes the use of cameras and microphones in hotels, restaurants, stores and other business enterprises to keep track of customer and employee activities and the use of State Security repressive methods which violate workers’ rights. (33)
Doing business with a corrupt military oligarchy that can, arbitrarily, make a negative and detrimental judicial decision on any matter affecting the investor’s corporate interest is a powerful deterrence for potential investors in Raul Castro’s Cuba.
Given these conditions and risks, only very daring investors are likely to pluck large sums of money into Cuba. A hostile state and controlled legal system together with a collapsing infrastructure does not make Cuba an attractive investing location. There are other countries with much more attractive internal markets and a population with significant purchasing power to buy products manufactured by foreign companies.
The average Cuban has a yearly income of approximately $228, one of the poorest in the world. (34) The Economist should point out that most investments in Cuba have occurred in the export sector of the economy, tourism, nickel and rum. Very few companies invest to satisfy the needs of the Cubans. They are not likely to do so while Cuba remains an impoverished island ran by an old military dictatorship.
*Pedro Roig is a senior research associate and lecturer at the Institute for Cuban and Cuba-American Studies, University of Miami. Dr. Roig has taught Cuban history courses at various institutions and was former director of the Office of Cuba Broadcasting (OCB)- Radio & TV Marti. He holds a Master of Arts degree from University of Miami and a Juris Doctor Degree from ST. Thomas University. He has written several books including “The Death of a Dream: A History of Cuba” and “Marti: The Cuban Struggle for Freedom.” He is a veteran of the Brigade 2506.
1) “As Cuba eases investments rules, many Cuban-Americans turn against the embargo.” The Economist. April 5, 2014.
2) “Canadian Parliament Member Warns Cuba Investors.” The Miami Herald. April 30, 2014.
3) Alfonso and Penin, Transportation Infrastructure in a Free Cuba: How to Meet Demands in a Challenging Economic Environment (Association for the Study of the Cuban Economy, 2009).
4) Roberto Torres, “A Wonder of Cuban Engineering” Granma International, September 13, 2012.
5) “Ferrocarriles de Cuba quieren echar a andar” Diario de Cuba, February 8, 2011.
6) Official Daily: 90% of Cuba’s Railways Deteriorated” Latin American Herald Tribune.
7) Babun, Teo. “Reforming Cuba’s Port Operations during a Transition.” Association for the Study of the Cuban Economy. (2007).
8) King, Dawn. “Cuban Sustainability: the Effects of Economic Isolation on Agriculture and Energy.” Western Political Science Association. Portland, Oregon. (2012).
9) Country Profile: Cuba. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). EIA.gov. (2013).
10) Belt, Juan. The Electric Power Sector in Cuba: Sustainability. U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). Usaid.gov. (2008).
11) Puig, Yaima and Martinez, Leticia. “Analizo el Consejo de Ministros Asuntos Vitales para la Economía Cubana.” Granma. (September 2013).
12) Puig, Yaima and Martinez, Leticia. “Analizo el Consejo de Ministros Asuntos Vitales para la Economía Cubana.” Granma. (September 2013).
13) Cueto, Josenrique and De Leon, Omar. “Evaluation of Cuba’s Water and Wastewater Infrastructure Including High-Priority Improvements and Order-of-Magnitude Costs” Association for the Study of the Cuban Economy (ASCE). AsceCuba.org (2009).
14) Healthcare in Cuba. Wikipedia.org. (2010).
15) Mesa-Lago, Carmelo. “Social Service in Cuba: Antecedents, Quality, Financial Sustainability, and Policies for the Future.” Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Washington D.C. (2011).
16) “El Mito de la Medicina Cubana”. Martinoticias.com (August, 2012).
17) Balis, Ryan. “Sicko Presents False View of Cuba’s Health System.” National Policy Analysis. NationalCenter.org (2007).
18) Newman, Lucia. “The Truths and Tales of Cuban Healthcare.” Aljazeera.com. (June, 2012).
19) Ibid. p. 4.
20) “Cuba Admits Food Imports Bill is up 25% and Miracles are Running Out” MercoPress. April 16, 2011.
21) Cuba’s Food and Agriculture Report. Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) USDA. FAS.usda.gov. 2012.
22) Oridis Pimentel Perez, Marabu that Dammed Plant of the Cuban Countryside. Cubanews. 2007.
23) Reinaldo Cosano, Marabu: ¡Apunten! ¡Disparen! Cubanet. 2007.
24) Cuba. FreedomHouse.org. 2012.
25) Cuba (Freedom House, 2012).
26) XE Currency. www.ex.com. 2014.
27) “Moody's cuts Cuba rating on risk from Venezuela turmoil.” Agence-France Presse. April 23, 2014.
28) “Moody's downgrades Venezuela to Caa1; outlook negative.” Moody’s Investor Services. December 16, 2013.
29) “Corruption Perception Index.” Transparency International. Transparency.org. 2012.
30) Juventud Rebelde. JuventudRebelde.cu. 2007.
31) Tamayo, Juan. “Cuba Government Minister Reports on Corruption in International Deals and Gas.” Miami Herald. 2013.
32) Diaz-Briquets, Sergio and Perez-Lopez, Jorge. Corruption in Cuba: Castro and Beyond. University of Texas Press. 2006.
33) Fernandez, Jose. “Riesgo y Miseria de Invertir en Cuba.” Diario ABC de Madrid. Autentico.org.
34) “Cuba eleva salario medio pero no llega a 19 dólares.” MartiNoticias.com. 2013.
Posted by CAMACOL at 10:52 AM